PLC stands for Programmable Logical Controller. It means it is a controller. And it can control electrical devices like motor, light fan etc. are connected to its output. It will control the output as per the logic given in side this. and the logic can also be change through our program. So we have to study, how the logical program can be made for the PLC. The PLC is working by scanning the all it inputs and update the output according to the logical program given in this. In order to make and update the logical program to PLC we need the following things.
PC Software for the PLC.
Connecting cable between PC and PLC.
Well knowledge about all the virtual electrical component and all other functions inside the software.
Knowledge about Ladder / FBD programming of the PLC
A PLC as per our requirement.
In our market lot of the different companies are making the PLC and each of them have various model also. Unfortunately the above 5 requirement is varying for each model. So in this tutorial we are giving the training of the zelio PLC from Schneider Electrical. This is one of the basic small range PLC. After completing this training you can program, troubleshoot and commissioning this PLC.
pc software for plc
As we explained above the PC software is required to make and upload the logical program for this PLC. This PLC PC software is free and it is available at schneider electrical site. From there we can download ZelioSoft2 V5.0 . And this version is a stable one and I checked windows 8 0S. So please download the zip file and extract it and install in your computer. Details of installation of this can see in the video.
If we have a triangular field and want to divide it in to 3 equal parts. Can we divide it with out finding the area. Suppose we divide only one side of the triangular field in three equal parts and joint the points to the opposite vertex. is it equal in size?. We are handling this type of situation in this chapter. to check this we have to find the area of the each plane. The area of the plane is defined as the magnitude of the planar region. And the planar region is the plane enclosed by the simple closed figure. We are also know about the congruent of figures. Two figures are congruent if they have in same shape and same size. then we can keep one figure over other. And if two figure are congruent then they are in same size. But the converse of the statement is not possible. Area of a figure can be write as some number of unit ex 12 cm sq.
In the figure 9.3-p-153. The figure T formed by two planar region formed by figure P and Q. wecan also denote the area of the figure A as ar(A) . The properties of the area of the figure is as follows
If A and B are two congruent figures then ar(A) = ar(B)
If a planar region is formed by a figure T is made up of two non-overlapping planar regions formed by figure P and Q then ar(T) = ar(P) + ar(Q).
Figures on same base and between same parallel
See figure 9.4 and 9.5 on p-154.
Figures are said to be on the same base and between the same parallels, if they have common base (side) and the vertices (or vertex)opposite to the common base of each figure lies on a line parallel to the base.
see figure 9.6 and 9.7 on p-155 see exercise also.
parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels
please see the activity 1and activity 2 in page 156/157. From this we can understand that, the parallelogram on the same base and between the same parallel are equal in area.
Theorem : 9.1 – parallelogram on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area.
Proof: See page number 157 for details . See page 158,159 for example and exercise.
fraction is used to represent the part of the whole thing. Fraction can be write in the form of (Numerator /denominator).
ex. ½, ¾, ¼.
½ Means, we are cutting an apple in 2 equal part and taking only one part. The denominator will mention the whole thing is cutted in how much equal part. Here the apple is cutted in 2 equal part so the denominator become 2. And we are only taking one pice from that. So the numerator become 1 in this example. ½ can also be called as half.
Like fractions: fractions with same denominator is called like fractions. ex. 3/7, 5/7, 1/7.
Unlike fractions : Fractions with different denominator is called unlike fraction ex. 4/7, 5/10, 5/9.
Proper fraction : if the numerator less than denominator in a fraction, then it is called proper fraction. The value of proper fraction is always less than 1. ex. 1/8, 4/9,6/11.
Improper fraction : If the numerator is equal to or greater than denominator, then it is called improper fraction. The value of improper fraction is always equal or greater than 1. ex. 5/2, 12/7, 8/8.
Mixed fractions: This is the combination of a whole number and fraction. For example 3 apple and a half apple. ex 3½.
Comparing the like fraction : In Order to compare the like fractions we can just compare the numerator only and can decide which one is smaller, bigger or equal. Do some exercise. p-79
Changing in to mixed fractions : we can change an improper fraction into mixed fraction by divide the numerator with denominator. The whole part will be the quotient, numerator will be the remainder and divisor will be the denominator of the mixed fraction. do exercise in p-79.
Changing in to Improper fractions : We can change a mixed fraction into improper fraction. The numerator of the improper fraction can obtain by multiplying the whole part and denominator and add the numerator with the product. The denominator of the improper fraction is same as the denominator of the mixed fraction see exercise in p-79. See video
Same fraction of a whole can represent with different fractional numbers. that means different fractional number can be same value. ex. 1/2 of an apple and 2/4 an apple. See activity on p-80. we can find the number of equivalent fraction of a fractional number by multiplying the numerator and denominator by same number. We can also find the equivalent fractions by dividing the numerator and denominator by same number. see p-80
checking the equivalent fraction
In order to check whether to fraction are same or not we can cross multiply them. Cross multiplication can be done by multiply the numerator of the first number and denominator of the second number. Then multiply the numerator of the second number and denominator of the first number. If both product are same then the two fractions are same. The product is the value of the fraction whose denominator is multiplied. By this we can find which one is big or small also. see p-81 for exercise
lowest form of the fraction
As we know same fraction can be write with different numerator and different denominator. ex 2/4, 4/8, 6/ 12. So in this section we will study how we can check whether the given fraction is in its lowest form. If the given fraction number is in its lowest form then there will not be any common factor of numerator and denominator expect 1. (or the hcf will be 1). For ex. 6/12, the HCF of 6 na12 is 6so it is not 1. There for 6/12 is not in its lowest form. If we consider 1/6, then the HCF is 1 so it is in it lowest form.
To change a fraction in its lowest form, we can find the HCF of numerator and denominator and then we have to divide both numerator and denominator with HCF and we will get the lowest form of the fraction. ex 6/12 HCF is 6 so divide both numerator and denominator we will get 1/6 this is the lowest form. see exercise 6B in p-83. See video
Comparing the fractions
Comparing the like fractions: as the denominator of the like fractions are same just compare the numerator. The biggest numerator fraction is the bigger one.
comparing the unlike fraction : In this case all denominator will be different. In this case if the numerator is same for all the biggest denominator fraction is the smallest one. If denominator and numerator are different for fractions then we can find the LCM if the denominators and make all fraction with same denominator as LCM, then we can compare the numerator only. To do this we have to divide the LCM with denominator of each fraction. And multiply the quotient with numerator and denominator of each fraction respectively. See exercise 6c p-86 See video
Adding the fractions
Adding the like fractions : As the like fraction have the same denominator we have to add only the numerators of the fractions and the denominator is the same.ex. 2/12 + 4/12 = 6/12.
Adding the unlike fractions: In order to add two or more unlike fractions we have to make them like fractions. To do this we have to find the LCM of the all denominators, and convert the denominator of all the fractions to the LCM. Now all the fraction is in like fractions and we can add them. see examples and exercise in page 88. See video
Adding the mixed numbers with like fractions : For do this we have to add the whole part together first, and this will be the new whole part. Now add the two like fraction part. If the result is in improper fraction convert that in to mixed fraction and now we will get the proper fraction in the fraction part of the mixed fraction. Now we can add the previously obtained new whole part along with the whole part of the mixed fraction and keep the fraction part as it is. See ex. i page-89.
Adding the mixed numbers with unlike fractions : This one also we can do as per the above steps. But before doing that we have to covert the unlike fractions in like fractions. see ex. and exercise in page-89.
To subtract any faction, we have to make them first in to the like fraction. To do this we can find LCM of all denominators, and make all the fractions denominator to the LCM. Then we can subtract the numerators and keep the denominator same. Like this we can subtract like fractions and unlike fractions. even it is proper or improper. see the exercise i page-90.
We all ready know about how to find out the area, perimeter of different shapes like rectangle and square. In this chapter we will study details about how we can find the area of various type of triangle.
area of the triangle
Area of the triangle = ½ * base * height
We can see that if the triangle is right angle triangle, we can directly take two side, which contain the right angle, as base and height. see the the fig.12.1 in p-197. So in this triangle ABC, BC and CA are the height and base ( any one can select as base or height). There for the
Area of the triangle ABC = ½ * 5 * 12 =30 cm².
Now we can consider an equilateral triangle PQR as shown in fig 12.2 p-198. In this we can know all the side of the triangle. But how we can find the height. We can find the midpoint of QR and mark as M and join it to P. Now we can see that ΔPMQ is aright angle triangle. And we can find the PQ using the pythagorean theorem.
PQ ² = PM² + QM²
Area of the triangle = ½ * 10 * 5√3 =25√3 cm².
Now we can consider an isosceles triangle. In this two sides is same. How we can find the height. We can consider the triangle XYZ in the fig 12.3 p-198. Find and mark the midpoint P on YZ and joint it with point x. Now we can see the triangle XYP ia right angle triangle. So
XP² = XY² – YP² = 5² -4² = 25-16=9
XP= √9 = 3
Area of the triangle = ½ * 8 * 3 =12 cm².
Now we can consider the scalene triangle. In this type of triangle all sides are different. So we cannot find the height of the triangle as described in the above method. Her we can use the Heron’s formula. Heron is the famous mathematician (p-199). The formula given by him can use to find the area of any type of triangle. And it is called hero’s formula
Area of a triangle = √(s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c))
Where a,b,c are the three side of the triangle. ANd s is the semi perimeter of the triangle. So s= (a+b+c)/2.
Now consider the triangle ABC in the fig 12.5 p-200. Here a= 40, b=24,c=32. so
s= (40+24+32)/2= 48
Area of the triangle = √(48*8*24*16) =384 m² see page 200,201,203 for exercise
we can also use this formula for finding the area of quadrilateral by dividing it in to two triangle, see page 206 for exercises.
Triangle is a simple closed curve made up with 3 lines segment. it have 3 vertex, 3 side and 3 angle. In a triangle ABC, the side are AB, BC, CA. Angles are ∠BAC, ∠ABC, ∠BCA. Vertices are A,B,C. In the above triangle the side opposite to the vertex A is BC. please try to say the opposite side of other vertex.
Based on side triangle can classifieds in to Scalene ( all three sides are unequal), Isosceles (2 sides are same), And Equilateral triangle (3 side are same).
Based on Angles Triangle can classifieds in to Acute-angle, Obtuse-angle, and Right angle triangle. see page 113.
Medians of triangle
A median is the line segment between a vertex and the midpoint of the opposite side. A triangle can be 3 medians. If we cut a triangle in a sheet of paper we can fold each of its sides and can be find the midpoint of each side. see (P114) for think and discuss.
Altitude of a triangle
It is nothing but the height of the triangle. It is the line segment between the base and opposite vertex. See (P115) for think and discuss. See (P116) for exercise.
Put little oil in a pan and wait for heat well. Put the musteread, jerekam, curry leaf, Onion in small pieces, green chilly cutted in mall round, fry well. after that add the yellow powder. Then we can add the Kumbalanga cutted in small pieces and cook well (20 Min). Finley add the cured (Mixed with little water in the mixi) and off the flame. And it is ready to use.